Thursday, May 21, 2020

The Term ‘War On Terror’, First Used By George W. Bush

The term ‘war on terror’, first used by George W. Bush in the citation above is commonly used as a metaphor of war to designate the international military campaign that started after the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001 and is still going on today. Even though the expression has later been rejected by the Bush administration as well as Barack Obama (Shinkman, 2013), it has since been widely used in the media to label the political and military struggle against terrorism, particularly directed against Islamic terrorist organizations such as al-Qaeda and the Islamic State of Iraq and Syria (ISIS) in Afghanistan and Iraq. Because of the ‘war on terror’ and the significant economic, military, cultural and†¦show more content†¦2.1 Oppressed Muslim women, American saviors Among the different narratives used to justify military intervention by the Bush administration one of the most prominent was the narrative of women being oppressed by men (Deylami, 2013 :180). The vision of women as victims of the Taliban regimes was indeed used to point out to the necessity for an American intervention in Afghanistan. In his speeches and addresses to the nation, George W. Bush made constant references to Muslim women, insisting particularly on them being â€Å"not allowed to attend school† (September 20, 2001), â€Å"executed in Kabul’s soccer stadium† and â€Å"beaten for wearing socks that are too thin† (November 10, 2001) as well as â€Å"prisoners in their homes† (September 11, 2006). Similarly, his wife, Laura Bush, on a speech to the nation on November 17, 2001, where she used twenty times the word ‘women’ also put a strong emphasis on the situation of Muslim women in Afghanistan. Throughout that speech, she for example stated that Afghan women â€Å"have been denied access to doctors when they are sick†, â€Å"cannot work outside the home† or â€Å"leave when they are homes by themselves† (Bush L., 2001). She further argued that â€Å"the brutal oppression of women is a central goal to the terrorists† (ibid).Show MoreRelatedEssay on George W. Bush/Barack Obama1746 Words   |  7 Pages George W. Bush / Barack Obama Many would argue that former president George W. Bush and current president Barack Obama are very different. While this is true some would be surprised at the similarities between these presidents. The differences between the two presidents go beyond style, of course. However, if one looked at the major economic and defense policies the differences, when any, are fairly minor. George W. Bush was born on July 6, 1946, in New Haven, Connecticut. Bush wasRead MorePresident Machiavelli Bush Essay872 Words   |  4 PagesPresident Machiavelli Bush George W. Bush, our current President, must keep a copy of Machiavelli’s most celebrated work, â€Å"The Prince â€Å"(1513), on his desk in the Oval Office. In my opinion, Bush and his administration’s actions mimic Machiavelli’s advice to the Prince on the tactics that he should use to stay in power. I am going to discuss how President Bush uses Machiavellian principles. My first example is of Bush’s â€Å"War on Terror†. In 2001, the President stated that Saddam Read MoreMichael Moore s Fahrenheit 9 / 111450 Words   |  6 PagesMichael Moore’s documentary Fahrenheit 9/11 is a visual that critiques President George W. Bush’s regime, particularly with regard to the handling of the â€Å"war on terror.† Moore stresses the questionable ethical nature of the post-9/11 policies put in place by the Bush administration, particularly as they give a new meaning to the U.S. relationship between censorship and freedom. In this manner, the documentary challenges the Bush’s administration construction of America’s morality as self-servingRead MoreThe War On Terror ( Wot )1582 Words   |  7 Pages The War on Terror (WoT), also known as the Global War on Terrorism (GWOT), refers to the international military campaign that started after the September 11 attacks on the United States.[47] U.S. President George W. Bush first used the term War on Terror on 20 September 2001.[47] The Bush administration and the western media have since used the term to argue a global military, political, legal, and conceptual struggle against both organizations designated terrorist and regimes accused of supportingRead MoreHow Presidents of the United States Overstep their Bounds and Defy the Constitution1642 Words   |  7 Pagesa decorated Vietnam War veteran, states in his book Winning Modern Wars that â€Å"Defeating terrorism is more difficult and far-reaching than we have assumed....We may be advancing the ball down the field at will, running over our opponents defenses, but winning the game is another matter altogether.† He also stated in the preface of the book â€Å"that the Bush administration had rushed us, pushed us, mislead, and manipulated us into war with Iraq with at the expense of the real war against Al- Qaeda.†Read MoreTerrorism : Terrorism And Terrorism 1003 Words   |  5 Pagesdisagree with something and attack to show how mad they are and to create fear. Terrorism has been used in the past. 9/11 was not the first time terrorism has happened. For example on February 26, 1993, there was the first World Trade Center bombing. What happened was that in a van there were explosives and cyanide. They were set of and six people died and thousands were wounded. Also, there was the Terror of the State. What happened was that millions of people were executed, arrested, and imprisonedRead MoreAnalysis Of George W. Bush s Presidency2900 Words   |  12 PagesPresidency Dr. White 4/21/2015 9/11 and The War on Terror Were Crucial to President Bush’s Legacy George W. Bush’s presidency was arguably one of the most difficult terms in the white house. A smart, cunning, and charming man was transformed into what many see as a â€Å"wartime† president. Following the events of the airborne attacks of the world trade center on 9/11 many say President Bush â€Å"faced the greatest challenge of any president since Abraham Lincoln†. George W. Bush’s presidency could be viewed manyRead MoreU.s. Bush s Administration On Foreign Policy Over The Last Forty Years1717 Words   |  7 Pagescritically review the understanding that G. W. Bush’s administration had of ‘unilateralism’, and it will thereafter argue that this concept was seemingly useful only in the short term, while proving to be unfavourable and hindering in advancing US national interests in the long term. C. Structure (200) Firstly, the essay will look at the general definition of unilateralism and its application to US foreign policy over the last forty years. In defining the term, this essay will leave aside the debateRead MorePresident George Bush Essay894 Words   |  4 PagesGeorge W. Bush was born in New Haven, Connecticut on July 6, 1946. Just like other presidents, he had his good times and his bad times. He was the forty-third president of The United States. Because of those who had preceded him in The Oval Office, he understood the importance of being the Commander in Chief. In all of the events that happened during his presidency he never gave up on his country (Biography; Gale: Vol 21). The Bush family moved to Texas when George was only two years old. GeorgeRead MoreThe Tragedy That Was 9/111677 Words   |  7 Pagesand any place. The government responded to these attacks by declaring a war on terrorists, vowing to â€Å"Meet violence with patient justice† (Bush). By declaring war on terror, the United States has spent over a trillion dollars to finance their was effort. The unexpected terrorist attacks sent Americans into a feeling of helplessness and uncertainty. This sense of fear, combined with an economic depression resulting from war, makes the attacks on September 11, 2001 the most traumatic event in American

Frederick Douglass - 905 Words

No one can argue the horrors of slavery. I always immagined that slavery was the worst thing possible that could happen to a person. .That was until I took this class and read the book about Frederick Douglas. As an assingment I was to write a paper and I had three topics to choise from. I was stuck between writting about the worst thing about slavery and what impact it had on what I thought I knew about slavery.I have watched many shows that depicted slavery as a harsh life. I have had black friends who could tell me storeys their great great grandparents once told. I knew it was not pritty before the book, but after it only opened my eyes to how bad it was. After a while I finnally decided which topic I wanted to write†¦show more content†¦I want to ad just a little about my own opinion. Slavery is an institution. It ruins lives or makes them better and is not a 50/50 profet. This is the truth about slavery it happened every where not just America but only in America are people so unwilling to just let things be. An example wouldbe the Jewish ancesters were slaves to the Egyptians but their desndants dont go to egypt and demand the pyramids that they built. But we hear all the time about what the White Americans did to the Black Americans . There are colleges just for the blacks as they still call themselves the minority. And there are easier college etrence exams for the black because they are underprivlaged. Mostly I see it as they wont let it go. It happened long ago where even today there isnt a black slave who delt with it still alive. We dont hear the Native Americans crying today. And from my view point they should be thanking us. If we look at Africas economy today, most of their people are dieing from either starvation or AIDS. Had we not taken them as slaves I see it as most of the African Americans as not beingShow MoreRelatedTrickery in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass1880 Words   |  8 Pagesthus they do not survive. In Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass by Frederick Douglass, Douglass harnesses the ability to conform to the world of trickery and conveys his journey to freedom. Through his appeal to pathos, use of dramatic asides, and application of anecdotes, Douglass expresses the necessity of slaves to play the game of trickery to survive in the world of tricksters. Effectively establishing an appeal to pathos, Douglass emphasize his raw emotions to the reader, allowing theRead MoreFrederick Douglass Essay817 Words   |  4 PagesAfrican-American man Frederick Douglass wrote his famous speech, â€Å"The Meaning of July Fourth for the Negro†, America was in a time of great distress. It was the year 1852, and the view of abolitionists was quickly spreading. It was the time of both provocative literatures such as Uncle Tom’s Cabin, as well as important resolutions, such as the Dredd Scott decision, showing the contrast between views at the time, both positive and negative towards slavery. Frederick Douglass was a freed African-AmericanRead MoreFrederick Douglass : A Man949 Words   |  4 PagesDaniel Lee 12/6/15 Frederick Douglass Essay How did Frederick Douglass move from being a slave to a man? In Frederick Douglass’s autobiography, â€Å"Frederick Douglass,† Frederick Douglass, a black man born into slavery, went from being a slave to a man. His actions proved he was a man. Frederick Douglass was born into slavery in Tuckahoe, Maryland. Like many slaves, Frederick Douglass didn’t know his exact age or birthday, but he knew an estimate of his age. â€Å"I come to this, fromRead More Frederick Douglass Essays505 Words   |  3 Pages The Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave is an account of Frederick Douglass’ life written in a very detached and objective tone. You might find this tone normal for a historical account of the events of someone’s life if not for the fact that the narrative was written by Frederick Douglass himself. In light of the fact that Douglass wrote his autobiography as a treatise in support of the abolishment of slavery, the removed tone was an effective tone. It gave force to hisRead MoreFrederick Douglass Essay691 Words   |  3 PagesFrederick Douglass Frederick Douglass was one of the most important black leaders of the Antislavery movement. He was born in 1817 in Talbot County, MD. He was the son of Harriet Bailey and an unknown white man. His mother was a slave so therefore he was born a slave. He lived with his grandparents until the age of eight, so he never knew his mother well. When he turned eight, he was sent to Aunt Kathy, a woman who took care of slave children on the plantation of Colonel Edward Lloyd. WhenRead MoreFrederick Douglass And Slavery.1438 Words   |  6 PagesFrederick Douglass and Slavery Frederick Douglass the most successful abolitionist who changed America’s views of slavery through his writings and actions. Frederick Douglass had many achievements throughout his life. His Life as a slave had a great impact on his writings. His great oratory skills left the largest impact on Civil War time period literature. All in all he was the best black speaker and writer ever. Douglass was born a slave in 1817, in Maryland. He educatedRead MoreEssay on Frederick Douglass658 Words   |  3 Pages Frederick Douglass nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Frederick Douglass was a man who was active until the day he died. Frederick Attended Anti-Slavery meetings and also attended meetings for Women?s rights. He believed everyone was equal it didnt matter if one was white, black, or green it also didnt matter what sex you were he believed everybody was equal. He achieved many things during his hard but great life. nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;nbsp;Born on a plantation in Tuckahoe, near Easton, in TalbotRead MoreThe Slave By Frederick Douglass972 Words   |  4 Pagesthousands of years later. In â€Å"What to the Slave is the Fourth of July?† Frederick Douglass, a former slave, addresses an audience of white abolitionists on July 5th of 1852. He focuses on the disparity between the American values celebrated on the Independence Day and the issue of slavery. To do so, Douglass raises the question of to whom those values apply and explains why and how it should be different. Analyzing Douglass’ effort, we see that he is using arguments that trace back to the ancientRead MoreThe Narrative Of Frederick Douglass1835 Words   |  8 PagesIn Frederick Douglass article Figuring out how to Read and Write he clarifies the imperative part instruction plays in a man s life, and the things that you can achieve by figuring out how to peruse and compose. Figuring out how to make a contention did offer Douglass some assistance with obtaining his flexibility, as well as offered different slaves some assistance with getting their opportunity and annul subjugation. We can say that Douglass was fortunate he was taught by his paramour andRead MoreFrederick Douglass Essay559 Words   |  3 PagesFrederick Douglass Born Frederick Augustus Washington Bailey on Marylands Eastern Shore in 1818, he was the son of a slave woman and, her white master. Upon his escape from slavery at age 20, he adopted the name of the hero of Sir Walter Scotts The Lady of the Lake. Douglass immortalized his years as a slave in Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave (1845). This and two other autobiographies, My Bondage and My Freedom (1855) and The Life and Times of Frederick Douglass

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Music Is Vital For Film From The First Silent Film

Music is vital to film from the first silent film to modern IMAX films. In order to understand the significance of film music, it must be defined. Grove Music Online defines film music as music composed, arranged, compile or improvised to accompany motion pictures. In the sound cinema, music is recorded as a soundtrack on the film stock and reproduced in exact synchronization with the projected visual image. This paper discusses the history and methods of music in film, explains the psychological power of music in film, the advancement of technology for music in film, and provides a few examples of composers who have written music for film. Many novice â€Å"movie-goers† believe that film score music and the soundtracks they listen to all began with film, but its tradition is actually much older. The approach to writing film music goes much farther back then the first film created, circa 1895, and even goes back farther than popular operas like Mozart’s Le Nozze di Fig aro in 1786. The development goes back to the Ancient Greek theater and even further back to the ancient rituals of the Sumerians. Understanding the history behind the development of music that leads to music in film provides composers a starting point when beginning to build their first film score, this process allows composers to learn from their predecessor’s successes and mistakes. Many of the early works that film music composers wrote were in the nineteenth-century late-Romantic style of Wagner and StraussShow MoreRelatedSIlent Film Industry in Hollywood1024 Words   |  5 PagesHollywood; when people hear Hollywood they usually first think of the giant Hollywood sign that is on Mount Lee in Los Angeles, California, celebrities, fame, money and last but not least movies. The Hollywood movie industry makes around thirty billion to thirty five billion dollars in the United States alone, while making ninety billion to hundred billion dollars worldwide (McCandless and Quic k). The Hollywood movie industry has become one of the most successful industries in the United States.Read MoreEssay on Nonpermanent Status of Movie Music in History535 Words   |  3 Pagesdoesn’t have music. For instance, imagine the movie Inception. Without any music, this movie is likely to be a slow-moving, boring film with excessive close-ups of Leonardo DiCaprio. In addition, Jesse Eisenberg and Co.’s fast-paced whines would annoy a large number of audiences. As this example shows, Music in movies is important. However, this importance was not always fixed. It was increased in film history. Starting as a peripheral element which is played outside movies, movie music was integratedRead MoreNew Sound Equipment During The Film Industry1661 Words   |  7 PagesOnce the Vitaphone staked its claim in the film industry the research and application of new sound equipment began to grow rapidly. First moving to even louder speakers for the audience to enjoy the music even more. Then moving to stereo speakers having different sounds coming from different speakers. Then moving to surround sound where the audience is engulfed in music and sound effects from all around them. Finally to our current technology of IMAX sound adding even more speakers and pushing soundRead MoreEssay on Film Techniques in 12 Angry Men957 Words   |  4 PagesFilm Techniques in Twelve Angry Men Summary: Reviews the film Twelve Angry Men, directed by Sidney Lumet. Discusses the directors use of cinematic techniques, including lighting, music,and set design, to reinforce the themes of the story. ________________________________________ Twelve Angry Men, directed by Sidney Lumet, is a film which portrays intentions significantly employed by the use of film techniques. Although entirely set in a cramped, humid jury room (except for the few minutesRead MoreFilm Music And The Modern Day2829 Words   |  12 PagesMusic has been used to propel the narrative in silent films throughout its history, but how did Bource achieve this in a silent film made in the modern day? This essay will be discussing the original styles used in silent film music, how Bource used them today in such an award winning way, and how he added his own imprint, and arguably modern flare to the music of The Artist. Silent films first appeared around the 1890s in America. 1 They are films that were without synchronised sound and especiallyRead MoreHow Did Directors And Film Execution Begin?1365 Words   |  6 PagesIntroduction Directors demand their films to be felt. What’s the point of creating a film if it doesn’t invoke thought or feelings? Hence the discussion of filmmaking and the important role the director has in executing a film as a body of work and or art form. However, one has to ask, how did directors and film execution begin? 1829 was the year of inspiration in reference to illusion and or motion. The first ever phenakistiscope or phenakitiscope was created to portray a moving picture whichRead MoreThe Manipulation of Sound in Cinema1031 Words   |  4 PagesLandscape and Architecture in Antonioni, Pasolini, and Rosi Soundscape: The Manipulation of Sound in Cinema Ever since the end of the era of silent film, sound, music, and even noise, has played and will continue to play a vital role in the world of cinema. It is through this very specific manipulation and creation of sound that directors are not only able to donate a particular emotion or feel to a scene, but also aides to allude to an even subtler subtext that exists within the world thatRead MoreAnalysis Of The Documentary To You It s A Reality 1671 Words   |  7 Pages â€Å" To you it’s a film, to them it’s a reality†; the translated poster headline of the award winning observational war documentary Armadillo (Metz, 2010), a captivating film, shadowing a platoon of soldiers as they fought the Taliban in the Helmand province of southern Afghanistan. A controversial and sensitive topic, in which director and filmmaker Janus Metz endeavoured to depict the brutalising effects of war, with a character driven and emotional story embedded through out. With such impac t surroundingRead MoreThe Lion, The Witch And The Wardrobe1599 Words   |  7 PagesIn this essay, I will be considering a range of key issues relevant to the adaption process for a specific film adapted from a novel. I have chosen to discuss a book written by C.S. Lewis; The Chronicles Of Narnia, The Lion, The Witch And The Wardrobe which was published in October 1950. It was adapted into a film by Disney in 2005 and directed by Andrew Adamson. Hutcheon writes that, ‘Adaptations are everywhere today: on television and movie screen, on the musical and dramatic stage, on theRead MoreGerman Culture Essay991 Words   |  4 PagesZeppelin, Daimler, Diesel, Otto, Wankel, Von Braun and Benz were the pioneers in modern automotive and air transportation technology including the beginnings of space travel. The work of Albert Einstein and Max Planck was vital for the establishment of modern physics. The first Nobel laureate for physics was Wilhelm Conrad Rà ¶ntgen for the discovery of X-rays. Architecture The architecture is based on Carolingian and Ottonian styles, the precursors of Romanesque. It also constitutes of remarkable

Obesity A Complex Condition - 2156 Words

Inquiry Obesity is a complex condition where there is an excess deposition of body fat and this may occur in isolation or may be accompanied by co-morbidities such as diabetes, hypertension, cancer, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnea, gout and coronary artery disease. Obesity is a global concern and more than 300 million people around the world are obese. Around 33 percent of North American population is estimated to be obese and rates are increasing in Canada every year. Obesity is defined as BMI more than 30.Waist –hip ratio and waist circumference are other indicators of obesity. Various treatment modalities are diet modifications, active lifestyle, pharmacological, non-pharmacological and surgical .Healthy diet and active lifestyle are the mainstay of management while other modalities have poor efficacy or non- sustainable results .Bariatric surgery is recommended for people with BMI more than 40 or BMI more than 35 with co-morbidities. Complementary therapies are gaining pop ularity in treating obesity and acupuncture is the most widely accepted modality worldwide .Some studies stated that acupuncture results were superior than conventional medicine Acupuncture decreases insulin resistance and inflammatory markers .It has an effect on lipid profile as well in a positive manner .Most of the studies showed that acupuncture has to be combined with healthy diet recommendations and exercise. More studies need to be conducted to confirm and quantify the role ofShow MoreRelatedHuman Genes Related to Obesity672 Words   |  3 PagesHuman genetic traits are ultimately classiï ¬ ed as either monogenic or complex (Celedon, Hunninghake, 2012). As suggested by their names, monogenic traits are primarily inï ¬â€šuenced by alterations of a single gene (Celedon, Hunninghake, 2012). On the other hand, complex traits are a result of variations in multiple genes, as well as the contributions of various environmental factors (Celedon, Hunninghake, 2012). One such complex trait, which has become quite omnipresent in the modern world, is adiposityRead MoreDesign Interventional Models For Primary Care Providers1619 Words   |  7 PagesAbstract Over the years from proven evidence-based research, there is a need for intervention as primary care physicians attempt to address the issue of adult obesity. Obesity can be linked to many adverse health outcomes such as: diabetes, hypertension and stroke as suggested by the National Heart, Blood and Lung Institute (2012). The purpose of this project is to design interventional models for primary care providers to implement into a wellness program. The program includes increased knowledgeRead MoreBiological Mechanisms Of The Obesity945 Words   |  4 Pagesdifferent conditions, in this case obesity. Therefore, they are potential predisposition factors. Candidate genes are chosen on a basis of knowledge of their function, biochemistry and their expression pattern (what protein they encode for and where is this protein mainly expressed) in obesity. At present, there are about 300 genes that have been hypothesized to contribute (to some extent) to obesity development. MONOGENIC Genetic research of obesity was partly successful in establishing obesity inRead MoreObesity Is The Type Of Disease That Is Infectious1248 Words   |  5 PagesObesity may not be the type of disease that is infectious. However, it has reached heights of epidemic proportions and poses a public health challenge, not only in Australia but globally. This disease has attained substantial awareness as a major health hazard and can be defined as an unhealthy excess of body fat at which can lead to an increased risk of medical illnesses and also may result in mortality, (Kitzinger Karle, 2013). Since the 1980’s the prevalence of obesity has almost tripled andRead MoreObesity Is A Health Risk1474 Words   |  6 PagesObesity is defined as a condition characterized by the accumulation of excess body fat, this abnormal or excessive fat accumulation may impair on one’s health, leading to a reduced life expectancy (Health Boosters, 2012). Obesity occurs when an individual’ s energy intake exceeds their energy expenditure, the larger the imbalance the more rapid the weight gain (Medibank, 2010). For practical reasons, body weight has been used to indicate whether someone is overweight or obese, and is commonly calculatedRead MoreAfrican Americans And The African American Population Essay960 Words   |  4 PagesAfrican American boys 2-11 were when compared with White boys. In looking at the statistics the African American population continues to suffer through obesity because of the limited access provided as well as other barriers such as poor diet and physical education. African American is consistently one of the top ethnicity suffering obesity. Although in the African American culture they continuously keep food as their revolving globe. Food connects the African American population together sociallyRead MoreObesity : A Growing Problem848 Words   |  4 PagesObesity related illnesses contribute to over 300,000 deaths per year in the U.S. We are a nation of overfed under nourished people with obesity becoming a pandemic. Obesity was once thought to be exclusively a social problem; it is now classified as a medical problem. It is a multibillion dollar industry. Losing weight is not just as simple as exercising more and eating less, as our society has grown more complex the obesity rate has risen. Obesity is a growing problem in the U.S. t oday caused primarilyRead MoreIs Obesity Predominantly An Individual Problem?. The Rate1089 Words   |  5 PagesIs obesity predominantly an individual problem? The rate of obesity is increasing globally and is a serious public health issue. It no longer only affects developed countries but is also having implications on developing countries. Often the focus is placed on individual choices and behaviours, this does not take into account the research and evidence that clearly shows that obesity is a multifaceted issue. To improve the level of obesity the broader determinants needs consideration. This essayRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Growing Problem1378 Words   |  6 PagesDid you know that obesity has become such a ‘growing’ quandary that for the first time ever today’s children are expected to have a life expectancy that is shorter than their parents (Gance-Cleveland, Gilbert, Kopanos, Gilbert, 2009, p. 72)? Obesity in children and adolescents has become a worldwide epidemic, increasing every year. In fact, childhood obesity in the United States (US) has increased to 17%, which has nearly tripled the prevalenc e of obesity in the last three decades (Center forRead MoreTrends in Healthcare Strategies801 Words   |  3 PagesBlumenthal mentions that the care market is somewhat burdened by chronic conditions, especially among the baby boomer generation. One important component here is that many of these conditions are preventable. Ironically, current health technology and a focus on healthier lifestyles have created a longer life expectancy than ever before in human history. The irony is, however, that older age and less activity also means more chronic conditions. This is something that should form the focus of implementing

Leadership Key to Group Cohesiveness Free Essays

One of the most complicated tasks to do is to understand how the human mind works.   Put several of these minds together and it is like a topsy-turvy guessing game that can often lead to miscommunication. Handling a group can truly be complicated. We will write a custom essay sample on Leadership: Key to Group Cohesiveness or any similar topic only for you Order Now As more minds work together, more conflicts inevitably arise.   If this cannot be handled properly, this will result to animosity within the rank.   Jealousy from among group members may crop up.   It is therefore imperative for the group to have a decisive and yet magnanimous leader to carry it through good and bad times. Amid this fact, the main problem that shall be answered is basic: How does an effective leadership lessen conflicts and motivate others, specifically subordinates, to be more productive and efficient?If we review the literature on leadership, we will find out that it is very extensive. Issues raise range from different styles of leadership, how to become effective decision-makers, and even how to better motivate people. One study found out that people subsist in a hierarchy of needs, going from physiological needs through safety, social, esteem to self actualization (Whitman, 1987). It is, therefore, vital that a leader knows how to motivate group members. People can be motivated not just by basic needs, but also by noble causes. Some leaders would consider that it is necessary to use pain or threat of pain to motivate, but others consider that this only motivates no one but the dullest and idlest of people. Promises of food, excitement, companionship, involvement and the appreciation of other benefits are better motivators (Whitman). Other literatures also deal with how leaders can make the group reach a consensus when it comes to decision-making. The study found out that many leaders like to think that they are skilled group decision-making methods such as action planning, goal setting and problem-solving, but their capability to execute such practices successfully is often hindered by their lack of understanding of the dynamics of these processes (Schwartz, 1994). In effect, these leaders often end up propagating problems that they themselves create through their carelessness and negligence to the needs of other group members. For this reason, instead of achieving a consensus, some leaders only serve their own interests. The better way to achieve harmony would be for them to pursue how resolutions are made and guarantee that they are attained by actual discussion (Schwartz). It is therefore important to remember that consensus decision represents a reasonable decision that all members of the group can accept although it may not necessarily be the optimal decision for each member (Colwell, 2001). When this is attained, it would be safe and reasonable to say that the leader of the group or the manager of the organization has exhibited effective leadership style. Theoretical Framework The study basically explores the relationship between leadership and its motivational effects on employees or subordinates. Ordinarily, subordinates are motivated to work harder because their leaders encourage them to participate in the process of decision-making.     This kind of participative leadership inspires subordinates.      This is the reason why this study will partly explore the model called the Continuum of Leadership Behaviour which was developed by Robert Tannenbaum and Warren H. Schmidt (Colwell).   This theory discusses the choices managers make concerning their subordinates’ involvement in decision making. Basically, the theory has carries two sides of a coin.   On one side, leadership is relatively authoritarian.   On the other side, everything is relatively participative. As to the choice of leadership to be chosen, three factors are considered. In studying this case, one must consider the leader’s value system, his trust in his subordinates, and his feelings of security in an uncertain situation.   In other words, if the manager is insecure of his position and abilities, he may resort to authoritarian leadership; limiting the chances of his subordinates to show their capabilities. Another factor that has to be taken into consideration is the employees’ willingness to assume responsibilities, their expectations, and their need for independence. Also important here are their ability to understand situations and their knowledge in dealing with certain problems. The choice of leadership also depends on the kind of organization one is dealing with.   When an organization needs to have an iron-fisted leader, then it is no doubt important for leaders to be authoritative.   However, if the organization needs continuous input from many heads, then participation of employees is vital to its growth. Another leadership theory that this study will delve into is the Goal-Path theory.   This focuses on the need for leaders to make rewards conditional on the accomplishment of objectives (Schwartz).     Specifically, this theory discusses how leaders should aid subordinates in attaining rewards by clarifying the paths to goals. Example of this is the model that was proposed by John Adair in 1973. It is called the Action Centred Leadership model.   It argues that it is not who one is but what he does that determines him as a leader (Vroom, 1973). These two theories of leadership clearly state that for a leader to become effective, he needs to adjust to the needs of his subordinates and organization. Although authoritative leadership could be effective in certain circumstances, a viable organization basically springs forth from a leadership that encourages participation from subordinates. Once subordinates discover that their services and inputs are valued by the leaders and managers, they shall be motivated to contribute more efforts to the organization.   This is very important as for many employees feel that some leaders do not value their efforts. Data Presentation and Analysis From the various literatures studied, it became apparent that the most effective leadership style is motivational one. Take for example the case of advertising agencies.   Most of them encourage the support and input of those involved in the project.   It is not only the boss or the leader who decides.   After some brainstorming, there will always be a group consensus that shall help them arrive at an agreed decision. In this case, the kind of leadership that develops and prevails in the organization is the motivational one because it encourages ordinary employees to contribute intellectually to all their projects.   In effect, the leader’s main work here only resides in facilitating meetings and brainstorming.   All the others depend on the employees. It would be impossible to find an effective advertising agency whose leaders are authoritative. This kind of atmosphere does not really thrive in a creative world such as this. Besides, if one has to really review history, it would be easy to note that companies that have survives the test of time are those that resorted to motivational leadership.   After all, everybody knows that employees are the core of every organization. To think otherwise is suicide. Although there are still leaders who resort to the â€Å"old† style of leadership where they confine decision-making within the realm of big bosses, they are fast fading away.   It is probably because they have realized how important varied inputs are to make an organization dynamic and progressive. At the end of the day, it is still the call of leaders or managers to choose the kind of management that they wish to impose in the office. They are the Pied Pipers of the industry and whatever they may decide on will affect not only their lives, but the lives of their subordinates as well.To put it succinctly, the following characteristics should be possessed by a leader so that he can effectively lead a group. First, a leader must know how to keep communication lines open within the group. As it has often been said, communication is the essence of organized activity and organizations function as a container within which communication takes place. By making sure that the communication process is seamless, he has already taken the step to make his organization more vibrant and dynamic. Second, there should be transparency between the leader and the members. To do this, the leader must make sure that a meeting is regularly scheduled to get both sides of the fence. This way, miscommunication is minimized and members will feel that they are vital to the group. Third, he should have the ability to combine caution with optimism.   He has to create a general outlook of optimism regarding what the changes he may want to implement. Any change in any group is often met with resistance and an effective leader must know how to deal with this. Fourth, he has to learn how to modify socialization tactics.   He must always remember that the primary way that people learn culture is through the socialization process. Lastly, he must find and cultivate innovative leadership. Group members are unlikely to give up whatever secure stability they derive from existing cultures and follow a leader in new directions unless that leader exudes self-confidence, has strong convictions, a dominant personality and can preach the vision with drama and eloquence. All these characteristics must be possessed by a leader in order for him to be effective. Of course, some effective leaders also falter in their role but generally, they are able to fill up their shortcomings by being able to get up when they fall down. In most cases, for a group leaders are more effective than managers. Technically, they are more or less the same but the latter are most likely inclined to only direct, instead of lead. Conclusion From the gathered data, it would be natural to conclude that an effective leader must know how to rally members behind the group’s goals and objectives.   He must not only possess sound judgment and magnanimity, but most importantly, he has to have a charismatic character that will make him stand-out in the group. It is not easy to become an effective leader.   One has to go through several missteps before he can effectively handle a group, but there is nothing really that practice cannot help improve. The most important thing that a leader has to bear in mind is that he has to lead several employees and whatever decision he makes will affect other lives.   It is for this reason that he must be very carefully about his management style.   Motivational factors of employees are imbedded in the leadership style of a manager, and this can only work if the manager will be able to recognize this fact early on. In the end, an effective leader is somebody who knows how to motivate group members into achieving their goals by encouraging teamwork to reach some kind of consensus amid varied ideas and beliefs. In the advertising agency mentioned earlier, the behaviour of the managers or leaders need not change because right from the start they have been advocates of liberal leadership where motivating employees are first and foremost in the over-all agenda. They recognize that once the right motivation is given to the subordinates, it will boost the morale of the employees.   From here, it goes without saying that this advertising agency will continuously evolved to become one viable organization internally. In a nutshell, it would be important to recap that motivation of employees is very important in ensuring a dynamic organization.   However, the right motivation can only be given by leaders or managers who encourage employee-participation in every endeavour. Ultimately, these leaders are those that discourage authoritarianism. Bibliography Avery, Christopher M. (2000). How Teamwork Can be Developed as an Individual Skill. The Journal for Quality and Participation. Colwell, Joy L. (2001).Beyond Brainstorming: How Managers Can Cultivate Creativity and Creative Problem-Solving Skills In Employee. Supervision. Schwartz, Andrew E. (1994). Group Decision Making. The CPA Journal. Taylor, Thomas. (1994). Public Dispute Resolution. Lecture presented for the Mediation Theory and Practice course at Florida State University Law School on April 16, 1994. Florida Conflict Resolution Consortium, Tallahassee, Florida. Vroom, V. H. Jago, A. G. (1988). The new leadership: Managing participation in organizations. Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice Hall. Vroom, V. H. Yetton, P. W. (1973). Leadership and decision-making. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Waitley, Denis and Maryann Rosenthal. Becoming a Proactive Leader. Whitman, Gilbert L. (1987) Leadership and Motivation (Management Skills Workshop) Bureau of Law and Business Reports, Madison, CT. How to cite Leadership: Key to Group Cohesiveness, Essay examples

Mr Alex Free Essays

Human science fragments everything In order to understand It, kills everything In order to examine It. † (Leo Tolstoy, War and Peace)l There has always existed the question whether human sciences are considered real sciences and if do they really follow the established guidelines of science. The argument is that the natural sciences take a different approach to results and have a strong dependence on the observer. We will write a custom essay sample on Mr Alex or any similar topic only for you Order Now This is due to the fact, that in some cases human sciences have to take into account concepts, which are hard to measure like peppiness or love. Likewise, the background knowledge and empathy of the observer affect the results of the experiment. When talking about human sciences is important to highlight that they don’t prove a theory, as there is no 100% certainty in any of the experiments. They only add information to the understanding of a topic or concept. To further develop my argument that states that Human sciences are scientific, the Boob Doll Experiment will be analyses to develop this claim. The Boob Doll Experiment was presented by Albert Bandeau to help prove his belief hat all human behavior was learned through copying and imitating, rather than through genetic factors. This experiment is still controversial to this day, as many debaters state that today’s globalize society that promotes violence. Therefore children are more prone to violent behavior than in other generations. Dry. Albert Bandeau used children on his experiment, as they have less knowledge on rules of society and less prone on behaving as the society think is right. He had four hypotheses; the first one was that children witnessing aggressive behavior by adults loud replicate their actions even if adults were not nearby. The second one states that children who have observed non-aggressive behavior are less likely to be violent. Even less than the control group, who have not even seen an adult. (Role Model) The third one proposes that children are more susceptible to copy the actions of an adult of the same-sex. The last one suggested that male children would be more aggressive than the opposite sex. Ii The Experiment had a simple and clearly stated Dependent Variable and Independent Variable. Also it had a Control Group used as comparison with the other woo groups, the one with aggressive and peaceful adults. Moreover the experiment can be repeated to add up and compare the information; this is a scientific quality that complies with the scientific theory. Another Important aspect to take into account Is that each of the subjects was tested Individually to avoid other Individuals affecting the reactions of the subject. Ill On the other hand, the experiment had some clear flaws. For example It generalizes the results as Just a few children were part of the experiment, so the sample is very narrow and specific. How to cite Mr Alex, Papers

Friday, April 24, 2020

While On Vacation In Acapulco Mexico, I, Along With My Family And Frie

While on vacation in Acapulco Mexico, I, along with my family and friends took a tour by boat to a small resort island. As we approached, I was awestruck by it's beauty. I knew this was going to be fun, but had no idea that this place would be forever etched in my mind. We were greeted at the dock by two natives dressed in brightly colored tropical shirts, white pants and shoes. They were also wearing smiles just as bright. They escorted us to an open-air type restaurant with a thatched roof that was actually attached to the pier at which we docked The restaurant had a casual atmosphere that made us very comfortable. The food was served buffet style, with an elegant array of Mexican and American cuisine. The entertainment provided in the restaurant during and after the buffet was de- lightful. A ten minute introduction to the Mexican culture was followed by an intriguing native dance, performed by a man dressed in an authentic looking costume consisting of only a rawhide g-string with a short apron front. His sandals had leather cords winding halfway up his legs. This dance depicted a story of a hunter and his prey. It was narrated by a woman who was also in costume. Brightly dressed Mexican men were beating drums and banging sticks providing the sound effects for the story. This was truly a great beginning to a wonderful afternoon. Behind the restaurant was a low mountainous area, accessible by walking trails only. We hiked one of these trails, observing the brightly colored tropical plants and trees that flourished on this well maintained terrain. A beautiful waterfall added to the splendor, and when we reached the top, a lookout provided a panoramic view of the entire bay. What a breathtaking sight! There was a bar here, and after a cool drink we decided to head down. We took a different trail down that brought us to the base of the mountain. In front of us, about 150 feet was the beach. It was 90 degrees and the Mexican sun made the sand hot under our feet. However, a gentle breeze kept us comfortable otherwise. On the beach we rented a cabana, which is little more than a thatched umbrella, table and beach chairs. There, we sat and enjoyed one of those big tropical drinks that has fruit on the edge of the glass and a small umbrella of its own. Staring out into the bay from my chair, was possibly the most serene feeling I have had in all my life. There were many people around and they were making plenty of noise, but my mind was absorbed with the natural beauty of this place. It was like none that I had ever seen before. Looking across the bay towards the mainland, with all its hustle and bustle, I felt as if I had found paradise. I had been to the ocean twice before, but only in the U.S., and never to a bay. Bay waters are much calmer, and therefore much clearer-so clear, in fact, that at a depth of six feet I was able to see a penny. The color of the water is also amazingly different from ocean water. The intensity of the blue color is almost fluorescent. After we rested, we decided it was time to get wet, so we donned our snorkeling gear and entered the warm water. I had never snorkeled before, but it wasn't long before I felt comfortable. Most of our experience was in very shallow water and I don't think it was ever necessary to go down more than ten feet. The fish didn't seem to be bothered by our presence, and although I don't know what kind they were, I touched two of them, and there reaction was only to flip there tail. About forty feet out from the beach it was still only about seven or eight feet deep, and that's where the coral appeared. This is something that no television or video could do justice to. The vivid colors of the coral alone were enough to make this whole trip worth while. There were many different types of fish, most of them with vibrant colors,